Rayのドイツ音楽留学レポート【第37回】ドイツの日本人

2022年1月22日

こんにちは、Rayです。私はドイツで音楽の勉強をしている大学院生で、オーボエという楽器を専攻しています。

北ドイツの冬は日本の太平洋側気候の中で育った私にとってとても厳しく、寒くて暗くて気持ちが落ち込みそうですが、それでも先月の冬至前後と比較すると日照時間が伸びてきています。寒さと暗さのピークは過ぎた(過ぎているといいな)と感じています。

さて執筆中の今私は学校のオーケストラプロジェクトに参加しています。本番の一週間前から毎日6時間のリハーサルがあり、その合間にはオーボエの個人レッスンなどの通常授業があり、個人練習と合わせて目が回る忙しさですが、大勢で演奏できることの喜びを感じています。大勢が一堂に会すということで、毎日の抗原検査と隔日のPCR検査を受けてから一日の活動がスタートします。

演奏する曲の一つにガーシュウィン作曲「パリのアメリカ人」組曲があるのですが、今回の記事はその題名にちなんで「ドイツの日本人」(つまり私)と題して、ドイツで生活する日本人である私が感じたドイツ(世界)の人の日本観を書いていきます。

なお、音楽大学には世界中から集まる多くの留学生が在籍しています。今回書く記事でも、ドイツで生まれ育った人以外の話も入れています。

日本というと

日本に来たことのない人(ドイツ人はじめ留学生含む)がよく日本人の私にしてくれる話題はアニメ、寿司、時間厳守のことです。

「アニメ大好きだよ」

幼少期にドラえもんやポケモンを見て育ったという人が多数いるくらい、日本のアニメはドイツはじめ世界に浸透しています。アニメに特に詳しい人の口からは、私が全く聞いたことのない作品の名前が出てくることがあり、そのたびに日本のアニメ文化の広がりを実感します。

また、前回の記事でも触れたようにジブリも人気があります。一度街の劇場の映画音楽コンサートの演奏曲として、ハリウッド映画の音楽とともにジブリ映画の音楽が取り上げられていました。(天空の城ラピュタより「鳩と少年」他)。ピアノを弾きながら友人と「ハウルの動く城の曲本当にいいよね~~~!」と盛り上がることもよくあります。

「寿司や和食は健康だよね」

寿司は大人気で、和食は健康というイメージが広まっています。

日本人が経営するお店でなかったとしても、ドイツ各地に寿司屋があります。最近では私のいる中規模の街の中規模のスーパーでも惣菜コーナーに寿司の取り扱いがあります。スーパーの寿司ですが見た目も味も決して悪くなく、日本が恋しい私にとってはごちそうです。握り寿司より巻き寿司のほうが種類豊富で、クリームチーズとアボカド、などの日本にはない組み合わせの巻き寿司もあります。

その他スーパーではアジア系食材コーナーに醤油や日本米、しらたきなどが、ベジタリアン食材コーナーには豆腐がたくさん並んでいるので、日本食っぽいものを作ることもできます。寮で自炊していると共同キッチンを使う隣人から「うわさに聞いた通り、やっぱり炭水化物、野菜、肉類をバランスよく使って油控えめで料理をするのね。だから良い体型をキープできるのね。」と言われます。本当はどうかかはわかりませんが、それだけ日本食のヘルシーなイメージが広まっているのだろうなと思うエピソードです。

持ち寄りパーティのときには、巻き寿司をはじめ日本食をリクエストされることが多いです。そして家庭で作れる料理(簡単な食材を使った巻き寿司、ツナマヨおにぎり、オムライス、唐揚げ、お好み焼き、卵焼きなど)を作っていくと、珍しさからかとても喜んでもらえます。

「時間厳守で仕事熱心だよね」

時間厳守・仕事熱心に関してはポジティブな意味、ネガティブな意味ともに本当によく話題に上ります。

日本では電車が時間通りに来るのが当たり前、という話と朝の通勤・通学時間帯の満員電車の様子が特によく知られているようで、日本の人は勤勉だというイメージがあるそうです。

つい最近ドイツ人の友人と話していてふと言われたのが、「日本ではロボットのように働くみたいだよね。」です。文脈から想像するに、友人は「ロボットであるかのように正確に丁寧に仕事をするから日本では全てがうまく回っている」とポジティブな評価をしているのだと思います。

日本での労働生産性について「海外では残業無し、有給消化率が高い。例えばドイツではバカンスが1ヶ月ある。それなのに経済力、労働生産性の平均は日本と同じくらいだ。日本も海外スタイルを取り入れたほうがいい。」と海外の労働環境と比較して日本の働き方を批判し、改革を提案する論調があると思います。

しかし日本の仕事に対する姿勢や精神性は決して悪いものではなく、海外では評価されていることもあるのだろうな、とこの友人の話を聞いて考えました。

実際には日本でパーフェクトに物事が進んでいるとは思えないですし、ドイツ式の仕事スタイルにも問題はいくつもあります。きっと隣の芝生は青く、いい話、憧れる話がお互いの国に伝わりやすいのだろうな、と今は感じています。

ドイツから見た日本は遠い

日本にいる私たちの感覚としては、「ヨーロッパの国ドイツは簡単には行けないけど、海外旅行先として人気があり、ドイツ旅行をした経験のある人も割といる。」ではないでしょうか。大学の卒業旅行でドイツはじめヨーロッパ周遊をした人の話を聞いたことがあります。(今のコロナ禍で自由に卒業旅行に出かけられない方、お気の毒すぎます…!いつか時間と機会が巡ってきますように!)またドイツ人の「勤勉、律儀」そうなイメージのためドイツという国とドイツ人に親近感を持つ人も多いのではないかと推測します。

私の感覚では、ドイツの人にとって日本は少し距離のある国だと思います。ドイツのニュースに日本のことが上がることは少なく、「遠く離れたアジアの中のどこかにある国」という認識の人が多いのではと思います。周辺国と陸続きのため旅行先にわざわざ日本を選ぶ人は多数派ではないでしょう。中には日本への渡航経験のある人もいますが、そうでない人の反応は「街はきれいで安全らしいから、いつか行けたら素晴らしいと思っているけれど(なかなか行く機会ないよね)。」という感じでした。

ただ、韓国・中国・台湾・香港など日本のすぐ隣の国出身の留学生は、結構たくさんの人が日本旅行をしたことがあるようで、「東京と横浜と大阪に行ったことがある。次は沖縄に行ってみたい」の様な具体的な地名を挙げて答えてくれます。また日本語を習ったわけではないけど挨拶を知っている人もいて、言葉を披露してくれることがあります。(おはよう、こんにちは、ありがとう、どうぞ、すごいね、さようなら、程度ですが、日本語を知ってくれていることに私は嬉しさを感じます。)

またロシア、ウクライナ、フランスあたりの国出身の留学生には日本に憧れを持っている人が少なくなく、親日家が多いのではないかなと勝手に推測しています。またドイツ人でも日本文化が好きな人は「いつか絶対に行ってみたい!」と言ってくれます。

まとめ

総評すると、日本はアニメや寿司などを通じて知られていて、ドイツでも日本のことを好きな人はいる、しかしドイツに対する日本の政治的な影響力は大きくなく、日本文化にそこまで興味のない人にとってはアジアの一国で良く知らない国、悪い印象は決して持っていないけど。ということが言えそうです。

ただ海外で日本人として生活していると、どうしてもドイツと比べて日本はどうなのか、という話になることが多いです。周りからの質問を受けて初めて日本の常識が世界標準ではないことを実感し、違う視点を見つけて面白いなと感じることがあります。

最後までお読みいただきありがとうございました。次回は2月5日(土)に更新します。

Ray

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